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the,natural

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第一篇:the,natural

The Natural Approach------自然教学法 自然教学法 自然教学法( The Natural Approach )是由 Stephen D . Krashen 和 Tracy D . Terrel ( 1983 )提出来的。他们在研究儿童如何产生第一语言的基础上,区分了语 言学习中自然“习得”和“学习”两个不同的概念。

Krashen 和 Terrel 指出,学习第一语言对于幼儿来说,既是生存的需要,又与他们的 现实生活紧密相连。儿童出生以后,生活在一个富有实际意义的环境之中,在日常生活和与 父母的交流中,自然“习得”第一语言。“学习”指的是学生在学校里有意识地学习第二语言。

课堂教学侧重于语音、语法、句型训练和听写、造句等等。

Krashen 和 Terrel 认为,在学习英语时,用习得的方式比学习的效果好得多。因此, 课堂环境应该尽量接近学生的实际生活。教师应利用学生过去学过的知识,设计和 ESL 学 生文化相近、便于他们理解的教学活动。在介绍新词汇、引进新知识的时候,教师要尽可能 结合周围实际环境。

主要特点

Krashen 把实施自然教学法的过程分成 4 个阶段

(1)Pre-Production ; (2)Early Production; (3)Speech Emergence; (4)Intermediate Fluency。

在第一阶段,教师在课堂上和学生自然地谈话,使用基本的词汇和句型,并且突出、 重复重点词汇。教师通过身体动作和视觉提示,如图片、实物等,帮助学生理解。只要求学 生能够听懂和执行简短的英语指令, 作出非语言性的反应。

许多学生开口之前要经过一个“沉 默”的阶段,这是正常的。在这个时候,教师要有耐心,不要催逼。

第二阶段,教师自然地和学生谈话,选择使用简单的词汇和句子结构,继续注意学生 是否能够对简单的英语指令作出正确的反应。此外,教师可以使用一般疑问句、选择疑问句 以及 Wh- 起首的特殊疑问句进行提问,要求学生用一、两个单词或短语回答问题。学生应 能听懂这些问题,并作出回答。

第三阶段,教师使用自然、简单的语言和学生谈话,用 How 起首的特殊疑问句提问, 要求学生用短语或完整的句子作解释, 表达自己的意见。

教师应鼓励学生在实际生活中用英 语表达思想,与人交流。

第四阶段,教师可以继续使用直观教具,强化重点词汇。同时,教师可以选择一个题 目或要求学生描绘一个情景,引导学生使用英语。在这个阶段,学生应能用英语随意交谈, 广泛参加社交活动,并能在学术会议上,用流利的英语答辩和讨论问题。

Krashen 和 Terrel 强调,在语言发展的任何一个阶段,教师都不要把注意力放在纠正 错误上面。学习第二语言过程中出现种种错误是很正常的。教师不要急于讲究精确的语音、 语法,重要的是给学生创造一个不必常常为自己的错误紧张担心的学习环境。

自然教学法涉及的范围相当广泛,和许多别的教学法都有关联,它的意义在于阐述了“习 得”的理论,解释了“习得”和“学习”的区别,说明了英语教学循序渐进的阶段。其重点在于创 造一个与儿童学习第一语言相近的环境,使学生能够自然“习得”,提高英语的流利程度和运 用英语进行交流的能力。 历史背景与渊源 NA 是由一位在加州教授西班牙文的老师 Tracy Terrell 根据其教学经验,在加上南加州 大学语言学家 Stephen Krashen 的理论共同提出。NA 和之前所介绍的 Direct Method (DM;又称 Natural Method)常常被认为是相同的教法,其实它们各有不同的特色:DM 是 依据幼儿自然而然习得母以的经验所创立,教法中强调教师用 L2 和切合的场景直接上课、 问答、重复重点,并要求学生要练习做到正确无误的地步;NA 的理论基础却是根据成功习 得 L2 的一些自然共通原则,并强调上课之〝内容〞(而非课堂上的〝练习〞)、重视学生 学习心理、以及学生充分了解 (comprehension) 后准备开始用口语表达前的预备 /适期。

L2 教学观 Krashen 和 Terrell 任为语言最主要的功能是〝沟通〞,而它也是传递讯息、意义的工具。

因此,唯有了解 L2 所要传达的意义后,学得 L2 的目标才算达成。以下,便将 NA 认为言 学习过程中几个非常重要的概念列出

(1) 先天习得—后天学习假设 (acquisition—learning hypothesis)---先天习得是指幼儿在成长环境中因听懂了母语,而能用母语做出有意义的沟 通,进而自然而然习得母语的过程;后天学习是指藉由意识的控制来学习的过程;(2)语 言监控设(monitor hypothesis)---先天习得的语言系统可以启发引导人开口说话,但是后 天学习的语言系统只能作为用来修正、检查语言表达的监控系统;(3)学习的自然顺序假 设(natural order hypothesis)---幼儿学习母语中的字汇和文法有其一定的顺序,而学习第 二外国与时也有类似的进阶程序; (4) 语言输入假设 (input hypothesis) ---所谓的 〝输入〞 , 指的就是教师传授给学生的课程内容。NA 认为要自然习得一个语言,学生所接收到的讯息 内容中应该有一部份为学习者已知的成分 另外一小部分则为比学习者目前程度在略高一级 , 的内容( 〝i + 1〞; i 表示学生目前的程度,1 表示比目前程度稍高的教学内容),这样 才能使学习者有所进步;(5)情绪门阀假设(the affective filter hypothesis)--- Krashen 认为学习者的心情和态度是一个足以影响学习质量的重要因素。当情绪门阀(恐惧、害羞等 负面情绪)的指数低时,学习效率就提升;反之,则降学习内容的质量。

以下为一教学实例

步骤一 教师告诉学生今天要学颜色。

步骤二 教师指着学生的衣服,一边指一边说:“Tony wears a BLUE shirt. Mary has a pair of ORANGE shoes, Jessica’s bag is RED. David ahs a PURPLE pencil case…” 步骤三老师拿出一张画,上有一道彩虹。老师依着颜色念下来,一边念一边指:”red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, purple” 步骤四把颜色卡放入盒内,和学生玩猜卡片游戏。老师拿起一张不让学生看。老师说”red”, 学生说”yes” 或”no”;如学生已学会,可让学生直接说颜色。

三、教学活动与学习型态 NA 的教学活动可说是集合各家教学法之大成,只要它们能符合〝i + 1〞的课程内 容原则,并可活络教学气氛、降低情绪门阀指数者,都可以被收纳在 NA 中。例如:TPR 的祈使句活动、DM 中用来引导学生问 / 答的手势和肢体动作,以及 CLT 中学生互通讯息 以完成任务的团体活动等。

四、 教师与学生的角色 学生是课程内容的接收者,它们必须藉由背景知识、教学情境及老师的语气语调等信息来了 解比它们程度略高一级的教学内容。他们在初学时不用急着跟老师对话,只要听的懂 L2 并 做出被要求的活动即可。等到心理方面调适准备好,再自行决定何时要开口练习的时机。教 师则是〝i + 1〞教学内容的提供者,要负责创造优质学习环境,设计多样的教学活动,并降 低学生的情绪门阀。

The Natural Approach Introduction

The Natural Approach was developed by Tracy Terrell and Stephen Krashen, starting in 1977. It came to have a wide influence in language teaching in the United States and around the world. language

Theory of language

The Communicative view of language is the view behind the Natural Approach. Particular emphasis is laid on language as a set of messages that can be understood. learning

Theory of learning

The Natural Approach is based on the following tenets: ? ? ? ? ? Language acquisition (an unconscious process developed through using language meaningfully) is different from language learning (consciously learning or discovering rules about a language) and language acquisition is the only way competence in a second language occurs. (The acquisition/learning hypothesis) Conscious learning operates only as a monitor or editor that checks or repairs the output of what has been acquired. (The monitor hypothesis) Grammatical structures are acquired in a predictable order and it does little good to try to learn them in another order.(The natural order hypothesis). People acquire language best from messages that are just slightly beyond their current competence. (The input hypothesis) The learner's emotional state can act as a filter that impedes or blocks input necessary to acquisition. (The affective filter hypothesis) See

Krashen and Terrell 1983 for more details Design---objective

Design---objective

Here are some of the objectives of the Natural Approac --? ? it is designed to help beginner become intermediates It is designed to depend on learner needs syllabus

The syllabus

The syllabus for the Natural Approach is a communicative syllabus.Types of learning techniques and activities:1Comprehensible activities Types input is presented in the target language, using technqiues such as TPR, mime and gesture. 2Group techniques are similar to Communicative Language Teaching.3 Learners start to talk when they are ready. Procedure: The Natural Approach adopts techniques and activities from different sources but uses them to provide comprehensible input.

第一篇:the,natural

The Natural Approach Teaching focus ? Background (difference between Direct Method) ? Approach ? Design ? Procedure ? Conclusion Background ? Tracy Terrel and Stephen Krashen ? Difference between older Natural method and Natural Approach Tracy Terrel ? Tracy Terrel is a teacher of Spanish in California, he outlined a proposal for a new philosophy of language teaching which he called “the Natural Approach” which incorporated the “naturalistic” principles ? He joined forces with Stephen Krashen, an applied linguist Stephen Krashen ? He was an applied linguist at the University of Southern California. His Second language acquisition theory and his Five Hypothesis are very influential. ? Krashen and Terrell’s combined statement of the principles and practice of the Natural Approach appeared in their book “The Natural Approach” – Krashen– theoretical sections – Terrell– implementation and classroom procedure The Natural Approach is an approach proposed by Krashen and Terrell to develop teaching principles which emphasize natural communication rather than formal grammar study and are tolerant of learners’ errors. It pays particular attention to the informal acquisition of language rules. The core of the Natural Approach is language acquisition which is considered a subconscious process, dependent on two factors

the amount of comprehensible input the students get, and the strength of their affective filters, that is, the amount of input the students “allow in.” Difference from older Natural method ? The Natural Method is another term used in 1900. ? DM merely emphasize the principles of naturalistic language learning in young children; A conforms to the naturalistic principles found in successful second language acquisition ? DM focus on teacher monologues, direct repetition, formal Q&A and accurate production of targetlanguage sentence; A emphasizes on exposure, or input other than practice, emotional willingness of the learners and longer period of hearing before producing. ? DM has less systematical theories of language and learning but has some practice. A mainly focus on theories. Approach ? Theory of language ? Theory of learning Theory of language ? 1) Communication as the primary function of language ? 2) Not necessary to analyze grammatical structure ? 3) Rules automatically provided in the input ? 4) Emphasis on meaning ? 5) Importance of vocabulary Theory of learning ? 1) Krashen’s Monitor Model of Second language development ? 2) Two distinct processes ? 3) The five hypotheses of this model Krashen’s five hypotheses p181 ? ? ? ? ? (1) The acquisition-learning hypotheses (2) The monitor hypothesis (3) The natural order hypothesis (4) The input hypothesis (5) The affective filter hypothesis The acquisition-learning hypotheses ? 习得/学得假说是克拉申所有假说中最基本的 一个,是其第二语言习得理论的基础。这一假 说认为:发展第二语言能力有两个独立的途径 :“习得”是下意识过程,与儿童习得母语的 过程,在所有的重要方面都是一致的;“学得 ”则是有意识过程,通过这一过程,可“了解 语言”(即获得有关语言的知识)。

“习得”是潜意识(subconscious)过程 ,是注重意义的自然交际结果,正如儿童母语 习得过程。“学得”(learning),是有意识 (conscious)的过程,即通过课堂教师讲授并 辅之以有意识的练习、记忆等活动达到对所学 ? Krashen认为成人学习第二语言可以通过两种方 式——语言习得(language acquisition)和语言 学得(language learning)。语言是潜意识过程 的产物。这一过程和孩子们学习母语的过程很相似。

它要求学习者用目的语进行有意义的、自然的交流。

在交流过程中学习者所关注的是交流活动本身,而 不是语言形式。语言习得则是正式教育的产物。正 式教育是一个有意识的过程,其结果是学习者能获 得一些有意识的和语言相关的知识。Krashen指出 学得不能转换成习得。例如,使用母语者尽管不懂 语法规则,却可以正确流利地使用该语言,而语言 学习者虽然有完备的语法知识,却很难在实际交流 中运用自如。因此,对二语习得来讲,自然的语言 环境比有意识的学习更为有效。 The monitor hypothesis ? 监控假说解释了习得和学习的关系以及后者对前者所 产生的影响。根据这一假说,语言习得和语言学得有 着根本的区别。语言习得系统,即潜意识语言知识, 才是真正的语言能力。而语言学习系统,即有意识的 语言知识,只是在第二语言运用时起监控或编辑作用。

这种监控功能既可能在语言输出(说、写)之前也可 能在其后。但是,它能否发挥作用还取决于以下三个 条件:第一,时间,即语言使用者必须要有足够的时 间才能有效地选择和运用语法规则。第二,语言形式, 即语言使用者的注意力必须集中在所用语言的形式上, 也就是说,必须考虑语言的正确性。第三,规则,即 语言使用者必须具有所学语言的语法概念及语言规则 知识。 ? 学习个体应根据情况合理使用监控功能。

在进行口头表达时,人们通常关注的是 说话内容而不是形式,而且此时如果过 多地使用监控功能,不断地纠正自己的 语法错误,说起话来就会结结巴巴,妨 碍交际的顺利进行,所以此时可少用或 不用语言的监控功能。但在书面表达时, 人们通常更重视语言形式,即表达的准 确性,所以此时就很有必要运用语言的 监控功能来纠正表达中的错误。 The natural order hypothesis ? 此假说认为学习者在习得正规语法项目的过程中 可能遵循一定的顺序,语法结构的习得是按一个 可预测的顺序进行的。此假说中的“自然”指的 是一些具体的语法项目的习得顺序,而在克拉申 的The Natural Approach一书中,他提出了自然 习得的四个要点:1)理解先于产出 (或输出);2) 产出要允许分阶段进行;3)在学习者未准备好之 前不强迫其说话;4)降低或减少情感障碍。接着 在同一本书中的另一章节,克拉申又用了很大的 篇幅论述自然语言环境的重要性。[3] ? 该假说认为,人们对语言结构知识的习得是 按一个特定的自然顺序进行的。在语言习得 的过程中,一些语法结构会先于其它语法结 构被学习者掌握,而且这种先后顺序与学习 者的年龄、母语背景及学习条件等无关。例 如,在儿童和成年人将英语作为第二语言学 习时,掌握进行时先于掌握过去时,掌握名 词复数先于掌握名词所有格。监控假说 此假说认为通过学习获得的语言知识在 头脑中起监控语言的作用。监控是学习者用 来编辑其语言行为的机制。它运用所学的有 意识的语言规则、知识等对所说的语言进行 质量检查和控制。此过程可于话语产生前或 后发生,并且是非强制性的。 ? 它体现了“语言习得”和“语言学 得”的内在关系。语言习得系统是 真正的语言能力,而语言学得系统 在第二语言运用时起监控作用。口 头表达时一般注意内容而非形式, 不去考虑语法规则;若过多考虑语 法监控,不断纠正语法错误,就会 妨碍交际进行。书面表达时,作者 有足够的时间推敲字句斟酌语法。 ? 克拉申主张输人的语言信息既不能过难,也不能 过易,为了使学习者有所进步,向其输入的信息 只能稍微超出其目前所处的水平。该假说是 Krashen理论的核心。习得者要接触“可理解性 语言输入”(comprehensible input)即略高 于现有语言水平的第二语言输入,即i+1公式。i 代表习得者现有水平,1代表略高于习得者现有 水平的语言材料。理想输入应具备以下特点

(1)输入是可理解的。可理解性 (comprehensibility)可理解性输入语料是语 言习得的必要条件;不可理解输入对习得者毫无 意义. The input hypothesis ? (2)输入是有趣或相关的:要使语言输 入对语言习得有利,必须对意义进行加 工。语言材料有趣、关联,学习者就会 不知不觉习得语言。(3)非语法程序安 排(not grammatically sequenced) 输入不按语法顺序进行。语言习得关键 是足量可理解性输入。如果目的是“习 得”而非“学得”,按语法程序安排的 教学不必要且不可取。(4)输入必须有 足够的数量:习得新语言结构需要连续 不断地广泛阅读和大量会话才能起效。 ? Krashen试图用这一假说解释学习者怎样习得语言,尤其 是外语。他认为单纯地主张输入是不够的,学习者需要的 是“可理解输入”(comprehensible input)。这样,习 得者的内在加工机制才能够运行。在这个假说中,只有当 习得者获得比他现有语言水平略高一点的第二语言输入, 而他又能把注意力集中到对内容的理解而不是形式时,语 言习得才能产生。这就是Krashen著名的i+1公式。i代表 习得者现有的水平,1代表略高于习得者现有水平的可理 解的语言输入。如果语言交际获得成功,语言输入可被理 解且保证有足够的输入量,那么i+1会自动提供给习得者。

也就是说,如果习得者首先理解语言的意思,语言结构便 会自然习得。输入假说还强调,语言使用能力不是教出来 的,而是随着时间的推移,通过接触大量的可理解输入之 后自然形成的。因此这一假说关注的是语言习得而非学得。

Krashen还给出了理想输入应满足的条件:第一,输入是 可理解的;第二,输入是有趣或相关的;第三,输入不按 语法顺序进行;第四,输入必须有足够的数量。当语言输 入大大超出学习者现有的水平、缺乏趣味性或相关性时, 学习者就难以理解所输入的材料,此输入在习得中就没有 价值 The affective filter hypothesis ? 这个假说认为,有大量的可理解输入的环境并 不能保证学生就可以学好目的语,语言输入必 须通过情感过滤才有可能变成语言吸收 (intake),习得才能发生。此外,第二语言 习得的过程还要受许多情感因素的影响。例如, 学习动机、自信、焦虑感等,它们对语言输入 有着过滤作用,从而决定着学习者接收输入的 多少。情感过滤是“无意识的,由于缺乏自信 心或焦虑而造成的”。如果学习者动机强烈, 有自信心或焦虑感较少,就容易得到更多的语 言输入,学习效果会更好;反之,则会影响习 ? 实现语言习得需要人脑向输入“开放”,使之 顺利达到人脑习得语言的部位——“语言习得机 制”(Language Acquisition Device简称LAD)。

除此之外,大脑还有个“情感过滤 器”(affective filter),它就如阀门一样控制着 语言输入,完全受情感因素操纵。当处于放松、 自信的积极精神状态时,可理解性输入便可顺 利到达LAD,从而习得新语言。Krashen认为 影响语言习得的情感因素有:(1)动机和态度

学习目的是否明确直接影响学习效果。目的明 确则动力大,进步快;反之,则收效甚微。(2) 性格因素:自信、开朗、自我感觉良好的语言 学习者进步较快。(3)情感状态:主要指焦虑 和放松。焦虑感较强者,情感屏障高,获得的 输入少;反之,则易得到更多的输入。 ? 克拉申的第二语言习得理论尽管有许 多不足之处,但它的提出对第二语言 习得理论的发展和第二语言教学产生 了积极的影响,起到了重大的促进作 用,特别是输入假说与情感过滤假说, 对外语教学与实践有着重要的指导意 义。 Implications for language teaching 183 ? Comprehensible input ? Whatever helps comprehension is important, visual aids, vocabulary ? Focus on listening and reading, speaking should be allowed to emerge. ? Center on meaningful communication rather than on form; input should be interesting and contribute to a relaxed classroom atmosphere. Design ? ? ? ? ? ? Objectives Syllabus Types of learning and teaching activities Learner roles Teacher roles The role of instructional materials Objectives ? To help beginners become intermediates. ? Expectations for the students: – Function adequately in the target language – Understand the speaker of the target language – Convey their request and ideas – Their production need to be understood. Meaning should be clear but not necessarily be accurate. ? It is important to communicate to learners what they can expect of a course as well as what they should not expect. P184 Syllabus ? Course organized from two points of view. First they list some goals of language courses – basic communication skills both oral and written. The second point of view holds that “ the purpose of a language course will vary according to the needs of the students and their particular interests.” It is difficult to specify communicative goals that necessarily fit the needs of all students. ? As well as fitting the needs and interests of students, content selection should aim to create a low affective filter by being interesting and fostering a friendly, relaxed atmosphere, should provide a wide exposure to vocabulary that be useful to basic personal communication, and should resist any focus on grammatical structures. Types of learning and teaching activities ? P 185,186 ? The Natural Approach is the use of familiar techniques within the framework of a method that focus on providing comprehensible input and a classroom environment that cues comprehension of input, minimizes learner anxiety, and maximizes learner self-confidence Learner roles ? Learners should not try to learn a language in the usual sense. They are expected to lose themselves in activities involving meaningful communication. The language acquirer is seen as a processor of comprehensible input. P186 ? Learner roles are seen to change according to their stage of linguistic development. 187 Learner’s responsibilities ? Provide information about their specific goals ? Take an active role in ensuring comprehensible input ? Decide when to start producing speech and upgrade it. ? Decide the time to do exercises and complete and correct them independently. ? Communication activities which lowers the affective filter may fail to provide learners with well-formed and comprehensible input at the I+1level. Teacher roles ? Teacher has three central roles – Teacher is the primary source of comprehensible input in the target language – Creates a classroom atmosphere that is interesting, friendly and a low affective filter. – Choose and orchestrate a rich mix of classroom activities, involving a variety of group sizes, content, and contexts. The role of instructional materials ? Materials come from the world of realia rather than from textbooks. The primary aim of materials is to promote comprehension and communication. Picture and other visual aids are essential. Other recommended materials include schedules, brochures, advertisement… ? It is a considerable burden on the teacher. procedure ? P189 ? In all these activities, the instructor maintains a constant flow of comprehensible input, using key vocabulary items, appropriate gestures, context, repetition, and paraphrase to ensure the comprehensibility of the input. conclusion ? P 190

第一篇:the,natural

The Natural Approach Part Ⅱ

Approach -- theoretical basis Theory of language 1) Communication as the primary function of language and emphasis on meaning 2) The importance of vocabulary 3) Not necessary to analyze grammatical structure & rules automatically provided in the input. Theory of learning ---- Krashen’s Monitor Model of Second language development Theory of learning Two Distinct Processes Acquisition -- Unconscious process -- Language competence -- Kids acquire their mother tongue Learning -- Conscious process -- Rules about a language (grammar) -- Learners who can understand the language rules Theory of learning The Five Hypothesis: (1) The acquisition/learning hypotheses (2) The monitor hypothesis (3) The natural order hypothesis (4) The input hypothesis (5) The affective filter hypothesis (1) The acquisition/learning hypotheses Model picture: Affective filter Learned knowledge (Monitor) Comprehensible input Language acquisition device (LAD) Acquired knowledge Output 1) Significance for second language teaching

a. Acquisition + Learning. b. Pay attention to both the importance of language acquisition and language learning c. Set an environment similar to the context in which adults acquire their first language & create a variety of activities leads to produce active interactions 2) Criticism on this hypothesis: Krashen

independent language acquisition complex language learning These two processes are complex happening in people’s brain, then anything is impossible. So how these acquisition/learning independent hypotheses are correct? (2) The Monitor hypothesis --- Only one function

a monitor or editor The relationship between the Acquisition/Learning Hypothesis and the Monitor hypothesis : 1) Three conditions: --- Sufficient time --- Focusing on form --- Knowing the knowledge of rules 2) Significance for second language teaching: -- Provide a monitor-needed environment to stimulate students to be sensitive errors or confusing 作文language points -- For example

teachers can collect several sentences from the homework, write them on the blackboard and ask students to judge whether it is right or not 3) Criticism on this hypothesis: It can only be useful in producing language but cannot in language understanding. (3)The natural order hypothesis -- A predictable order (some rules tending to come early and other late) 1) Basic views a. Children learn language in a predictable sequence. b. It is impossible to alter the course of development since language acquisition L1 or L2 is a driven process. c. Grammar teaching is a waste of time 2) Significance for second language teaching: -- Grammars acquisition -- Different teaching methods according to different orders 3) Criticism on this hypothesis

a. It has a weak theoretical basis b. Its researching ways are simplex (4)The input hypothesis -- The most important conception in the second language acquisition theory. -- “comprehensible input” (I+1) i

our current level 1

comprehensible input 1) Four main issues

① Acquisition. ② Comprehensible input i+1 ③ Speak fluently “emerges” independently after built up language competence by understanding input. ④ Enough comprehension input provides i+1 automatically. 2) Significance for second language teaching: a. As much information input as possible. b. Carry out more communication activities 3) Criticism on this hypothesis: a. Exaggerates the importance of the language input & cannot reveal how the input internalizes into the inner knowledge for learners. b. Ignores the subjective initiative and brain creativity c. Simplifies the process of second language acquisition (5)The affective filter hypothesis -- Play an important role -- An adjustable filter -- Three kinds of affective variables

motivation self-confidence anxiety -- High motivation + Self-confidence + A low level of anxiety = Successful language acquisition 2) Significance for second language teaching: -- Provide input & help make it comprehensible in a low anxiety situation -- Reduce anxiety, promote motivation, and build self-esteem. weak affective Children filter Adults strong affective filter low self consciousness, emotional fragility and high self image high self consciousness, emotional fragility and low self image 3) Criticism on this hypothesis

-- What does the "part of language" exactly refer to? -- How can the affective filter differentiate the "part of language" from other part of language? Conclusion: A novel perspective for the language teaching

1. As much comprehensible input as possible 2. Whatever helps comprehension is important 3. Focus on listening and reading 4. Meaningful communication & interesting input & relaxed classroom atmosphere.